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06 March 2024

Estonia: Ninth 'Integration Monitoring' study

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Estonia conducted its 9th 'Integration Monitoring' study (EIM 2023), commissioned by the Ministry of Culture. The results show that the country has made significant progress in the integration field in the long term.

The key findings of the study are as follows:

  • 58% of the non-Estonian-speaking population relates positively to Estonia and is integrated. The majority of this group comprises Estonian citizens, as well as half of the population of Russian citizens who live and were born in Estonia.
  • 42% of those who have a more negative attitude towards Estonia are Estonian citizens; a sizeable group of Russian-speaking non-citizens also shared dissatisfaction (with economic, political, and social developments).
  • Integration is fostered by the changing of generations, the growing multiculturalism of the younger generation, and a virtual culture that operates transnationally. Young people are generally more integrated than their parents.
  • The proportion of people of other nationalities with active knowledge of Estonian has risen steadily over the past 15 years, standing at 46% today.
  • Both Estonians (93%) and non-Estonians (83%) have a strong sense of Estonian identity.
  • 54% of Estonians say that the war in Ukraine has affected their relations with other people. The war in Ukraine has sharpened ideological and cultural conflicts and strengthened both feelings of solidarity and appreciation of security.
  • 76% of new immigrants consider themselves well-adapted to life in Estonia; 6% do not feel well-adapted.
Report of Estonian Integration Monitoring 2023
(5.22 MB - PDF)


Aivar Voog, Jaanika Hämmal, Kaisa Esko, Külliki Seppel, Marju Lauristin, Marre Karu, Triin Vihalemm
Geographic area
Contributor type
Akademiker und Experten
Original source
Posted by
Kristjan Kaldur
Country Coordinator

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