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10 May 2024

IOM surveys with refugees from Ukraine in Estonia: needs, challenges and intentions

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In this report, published in April 2024, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Estonia presents insights from surveys with refugees from Ukraine, focused on their needs, intentions, and integration challenges. 

From March - December 2023 IOM surveyed 2 382 refugees displaced from Ukraine in Estonia. 75% of respondents were women; 25% were men. 38% were aged between 30 - 39 years, and 24% between 18 and 29 years.

Key findings include the following:

  • Refugees’ top needs are language courses (32%), financial support (27%), employment (25%) and health services (20%).
  • The most commonly occurring inclusion challenges are the language barrier (42%), employment (33%), housing (21%), and financial issues (13%).
  • 90% of those surveyed said they intend to remain in Estonia, either in their current location (88%) or in a different location within the country (2%) in the near future.
  • 50% respondents plan to return to Ukraine when it is safe to do so, while 14% do not intend to return at all.
  • 58% of those surveyed are currently employed.
  • 67% of survey participants said they had taken Estonian language courses, while 33% had not.
  • 91% respondents reported that their average income is sufficient to cover their monthly expenses in Estonia, while 9% reported they did not have sufficient income to cover their expenses.
  • 86% respondents had already registered for Temporary Protection (TP) status or applied for another form of protection status with the national authorities in Estonia. Those who did not apply or register claimed to be ineligible for TP or were planning to leave Estonia soon.
  • 75% respondents said they were currently residing in accommodation rented on the open market.
  • 62% had their children enrolled in and attending local schools; 31% had their children engaged in both local and online education from Ukraine.
Estonia — Surveys with Refugees from Ukraine: Needs, Intentions, and Integration Challenges
(2.07 MB - PDF)


IOM Estonia
Geographic area
Contributor type
European Institutions/organisations
Original source
Posted by
Kristjan Kaldur
Country Coordinator

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